Final -s causes confusion because it has different meanings in standard English. The -s on the end of a verb usually marks a singular form, whereas -s on the end of a noun usually marks a plural form. To complicate matters further, the spelling of some words (such as loss and gas) includes an -s ending that carries no grammatical information at all. Understanding the uses of final -s will help you to apply the grammatical markers clearly in your writing.
Chapter 11 helps you to distinguish among three -s endings and to use them correctly:
- natural -s (built into the spelling of some words)
- plural -s on nouns
- third person singular present tense -s on verbs.