On some nouns and verbs, add -e before a
final -s. (See Chapter
11 for more work with final -s in general.)
Now that Carol goes to seventh grade, she insists on doing exactly what the other kids do, like packing her lunches in bags instead of boxes, even though the tomatoes in the sandwiches are more likely to get squashed. She claims
that the other kids all carry radios to school, too, but I don't believe that.
Add -e along with any final -s when a word's natural ending is -s, -x, -sh, or -ch. In addition, this -es usually goes on a word ending in -o with a consonant right before it. In the sentences above:
- lunch, sandwich both end in -ch, so they add -es.
- box ends in -x, so it adds -es.
- insist, bag, claim, kid each end in consonants that aren't on the list, so they simply add -s.
- go, tomato both end in a consonant + -o, so they add -es.
- radio ends in a vowel + -o, so it adds only -s.
For some words that end in -y, change the -y to -i before adding an ending.
After their weariness wore off, the talent show participants partied all night. They weren't worried about studying for the test on the short stories since the the exam period had been delayed.
Change the -y to -i before any added ending except -ing when the final -y comes right after a consonant. In the sentences above:
- weary ends in a consonant + -y, so the -y changes to -i before the -ness.
- party, worry each end in a consonant + -y, so the -y changes to -i before the -ed.
- story ends in a consonant + -y, so the -y changes to -i. (Notice that a final -s becomes -es here.>
- study ends in -y, but it is adding -ing, so the -y doesn't change.
- delay ends in a vowel + -y, so the -y doesn't change.