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10.3 Final -ed: Recognizing Final -ed

Application 1

The following paragraphs are the introduction and conclusion of a student's essay. First read the paragraphs aloud, listening for the -ed endings. Then reread the paragraphs, going over the text carefully with your mouse-cursor as you read, and watching for the message in the box below each paragraph.

Have you ever walked across a dark, lonely, deserted street or parking lot and for one reason or another been scared because you thought you were going to be mugged or battered? If you've answered "yes" to this question, don't feel ashamed because you're in the great majority. I asked myself this same question about seven years ago and bravely decided to do something about the problem. I wanted to be able to control fear before it controlled me. I learned to control my fear and become more self-confident through the martial arts. . . .

I have now earned my orange belt in Kenpo and my green belt in Shorin-Ryu. Looking back over the past seven years, I realize that I have learned much more than I had first wanted to. The philosophies of the martial arts can be used for much more than self-defense. To sum it all up, let me recall the words of my master, Eddie Parker: "I come to you with only karate, empty hands. I have no weapons, but should I be forced to defend myself, my principles, or my honor, then here are my weapons: karate, my empty hands."

— Andrew DiSelvestro

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