CHOICE BETWEEN PARTICIPLES
The two participle forms convey different meanings, and choosing between them requires you to think about the difference between active and passive.
For some verbs, it can be difficult to choose between the active and passive participles. Practice using the following participles as modifiers in sentences of your own, and get a native English-speaking friend to check your sentences:
|Present participle |
|Embedded form of an active progressive verb. |
Describes an agent that causes something, or a thing in an ongoing process.
|The movie WAS BORING her.|
It was a boring movie. (The movie was causing her response.)
This dog IS TEARING my skirt.
I hate the sound of tearing cloth. (The cloth is in the process of the action.)
|Past participle |
(_____-ed or irregular ending)
|Embedded form of a passive verb.|
Describes a receiver of an effect or process.
|She WAS BORED by that movie.|
Bored and lonely, she left early. (She has received the effect of the movie.)
My skirt IS BEING TORN by this dog.
Look at the torn and dirty cloth. (The cloth had received the process of the dog's bite.)